DNA is the biological material that carries genetic information in most living organisms. The DNA segments that carry this information are called genes, and each gene corresponds to a specific trait in an organism. DNA is made up of two strands—one with the instructions for creating proteins, and the other with the instructions for creating RNA, which in turn creates proteins.
Proteins are important because they’re what make up all of your cells, organs, tissues, and other structures in your body!
Amino acids are the building blocks that makeup proteins; they are commonly referred to as codons. Proteins are essential for all life processes, including cell structure and function, metabolism, reproduction, and growth.
The structure of DNA is similar to a ladder: it’s made up of two strands that run side by side (the “rungs” of the ladder), and each rung has four letters on it (A, C, G, T). The letters A-T stand for different subunits called nucleotides.